The electronics behind a rather special kind of vehicle

Published in issue 7/2009 on page 66

In this first article describing our DIY self-balancing single-axle vehicle we look at the electronics modules. An ATmega32 processes the controls and sensor data and drives the two electric motors via power driver stages. It keeps the vehicle balanced and can drive it in any desired direction at any desired speed from stationary to about 11 mph.


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Main PCB
R1,R6,R13,R14,R18…R22 = 4kΩ7
R2 = 100kΩ
R3,R11,R15 = 10kΩ
R4 =  2kΩ2
R5 = 6kΩ8
R7…R9  = 240Ω
R10 =  68kΩ
R12 = 15Ω
R16  = 150Ω (2W)
R17 = 1kΩ    
R23…R30 = 4.7Ω
C1…C3 = 470µF/ 63V
C4...C9,C25 = 4µF7/100V
C10,C21 = 47µF/63V
C11...C17,C20,C22,C24,C26..C34,C36 = 100nF
C18,C19 = 25pF
C23 = 1µF/63V
C35,C37 =  470nF
D1–D4 = 1N4936
IC1–IC4 = IR2184 (International Rectifier)
T1–T8 = IRF1405 (International Rectifier)
IC5 = ACS755 SCB-100 (Allegro Microsystems)
IC6 = 7805
IC7 = ATMega32 PDIP (Atmel)
IC8,IC9 = 4001N  
IC10 = ATTiny25-PDIP (Atmel)
IC11 = MIC2941 (Micrel)
LED1 = LED, 3mm, green
LED2 = LED, 3mm, yellow
LED3 = LED, 3mm, red
X1 = 16-MHz crystal
K1,K2 = socket header, 5-mm height, 2.54-mm pitch
K3 = pin header, 5-way,  2.54-mm pitch
K4 = pin header, 2x5-way, 2.54-mm pitch
MA,MB = terminal, 2-way, 6.35-mm pitch


Sensor board
R3,R4 =  75Ω, SMD 1206
C1 = 2µF2/16V, SMD 3216
C16 = 4µF/6V, SMD 3216
C2,C9 = 220nF, SMD 0603
C11,C12 =  1µF, SMD 0603
C3,C4 = 2nF2, SMD 1206
C10 = 100nF, SMD 1206
C14,C15 = 100nF, SMD 1206
IC1 = IDG-300  QFN40 (Invensense)
IC2 = ADXL320 (Analog Devices)
IC3 = LP2980 (National Semiconductor)
K1,K2 = pin header, 10-way, 2.54-mm pitch
Potentiometer, 5kΩ linear, cermet, 6-mm shaft